This was originally published on Medium.com

The world of computers is an odd place. In the span of my own lifetime, I’ve gone from not owning a computer because it was too expensive to owning a watch that has more computing power than the first computer I ever owned. The amount of computing power in my house is mind boggling when I think about it compared to twenty years ago.

Software, too, has evolved. I started off with DOS, then switched to Windows 3.1. I never personally owned a modern Mac until a few years ago, but used them throughout school. There was always the PC vs Mac rivalry but I didn’t care for the most part. I used a PC because it played games. That was up until I found Linux.

Somewhere around 2000, I was at a book store and came across a boxed set for Linux Mandrake. I think it was something like fifty dollars and I had enough cash for it. I installed it on a second machine I had and was amazed.

I quickly ran into problems running it and had to search for help online. I started to learn about sharing source code, how to patch and recompile programs, and this whole world of sharing code. The GPL made all of this possible.

This GPL thing intrigued me though. Here was this document that told me I was allowed to modify and share the source code to software as long as I made my changes public. That all made sense. If something didn’t correctly I should be able to fix it and let other people know of the fix. I could not do that with Windows, or Microsoft Office, or Photoshop on the Macs at school.

Why did you need this documentation, this proof that I was allowed to do this and not get in trouble?

That’s the world we live in.

How did we get here?

“All Information should be free” — Steven Levy, “Hackers: Heros of the Computer Revolution”, on the Hacker Ethics

In 1956, the Lincoln Laboratory designed the TX-0, one of the earliest transistorized computers. In 1958 it was loaned to MIT while Lincoln worked on the TX-2.

The TX-0 amazed the early computer hackers at MIT. It didn’t use cards, and it wasn’t cloistered away like the hulking behemoth of a machine from IBM that most people at MIT programmed against. You typed your program onto a ribbon of thin paper, fed it into the console, and your program ran.

Most importantly the TX-0 was not nearly as guarded as the holy IBM 704. Most of the hackers were free to do what they wanted with the machine. There was one problem, and it was somewhat of a large on — the TX-0 had no software.

So the hackers at MIT created what they needed.

Most of the software was kept in drawers and when you needed something, you reached in and grabbed it. The best version of a tool would always be available, and anyone could improve it at any time. Everyone was working to make the computer and the software better for everyone else.

“All information should be free” was a core tenant of the hacker culture at MIT. No one needed permission to modify the software as everyone was interested in making the software, and thereby the TX-0, better.

As the machines changed and the software changed, this ethos did not. Software would be shared and changed to work on many different types of hardware, and improvements were added over time. Needed the latest copy? Just ask for it. Need to fix it? Just fix it.

“To me, the most critical thing in the hobby market right now is the lack of good software courses, books, and software itself. […] Almost a year ago, Paul Allen and myself, expecting the hobby market to expand, hired Monte Davidoff and developed Altair BASIC. […] The feedback we have gotten from the hundreds of people who say they are using BASIC has all been positive. Two surprising things are apparent, however. 1) Most of these “users” never bought BASIC […]” — Bill Gates, “An Open Letter of Hobbyists”

Fast forward to 1976. Computers have left the halls of universities that had the physical space needed in the 50’s and 60’s to house them and are entering people’s homes. They aren’t necessarily like the computers we have today, but all computers need software.

The ideals that the hacker culture at MIT did not change as it spread westward and as these computers invaded the lives of hobbyists. What has changed is the business around computers, and like anything when it comes to humans, there is always money to be made.

“All information should be free” reared it’s head when the tape containing Altair BASIC disappeared from a seminar put on by MITS at Rickey’s Hyatt House in Palo Alto, California. Why? Ed Roberts, the “father of the personal computer” and the founder of MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) had decided to not give the Altair BASIC software to customers for free and instead charged $200 for the ability to write software.

For better or for worse, copies of Altair BASIC started appearing and being shared.

The landscape of computers and software development was changing. You no longer had one or two giant machines sitting in a university that had paid staff who could write software for them. With the TX-0 at MIT, it did not cost them anything extra to make and distribute software because there was no downside — there was not any money being exchanged. Just increases in workflow (and better gaming).

By the 1970s the need for software was seeing an ideological shift .Up until this point the creation of software was paid for indirectly by the universities and companies that needed it. Since most software was built by university developers, it was infused with the academic idea of sharing knowledge. Now software developers were seeing the need to develop generic software that many people would need to use.

That costs money, because developers have themselves and their families to support.

“Those who do not understand UNIX are condemned to reinvent it, poorly” — Henry Spencer

The 1970s also saw the development of the Unix operating system developed at AT&T by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Much like the original tools built by the hackers at MIT on the TX-0, Unix grew as it was licensed to other companies and universities.

Unix was alluring because it was portable, handled multiple users and multi-tasking. Standards help people develop software, and Unix became one of those standards. Before this was Multics for the GE-645 mainframe, but it was not without its faults.

AT&T, however, was not allowed to get into the computer business due to an antitrust case that was settled in 1958. Unix was not able to be sold as a product, and Bell Labs (owned by AT&T) was required to license its non-telephone technology to anyone who asked.

Ken Thompson did just that.

Unix was handed out with a licenses that dictated the terms of usage, as the software was distributed in source form. The only people who had requested Unix were ones that could afford the servers, namely universities and corporations. The same entities that were used to just sharing software.

The open nature of Unix allowed researchers to extend Unix as they saw fit, much as they were used to doing with most software. As fixes were developed or things were improved, they were folded into mainstream Unix.

The University of California in Berkeley was one of the most sought-after versions of the Unix code base, and started distributing their own variant of BSD in 1978, known as 1BSD, as an add-on to Version 6 Unix.

There was a hitch though. AT&T owned the copyright to the original Unix software. As time went on AT&T used software from projects outside of themselves, including the Computer Sciences Research Group from Berkeley.

Eventually AT&T was allowed to sell Unix, but their commercially available version of Unix was missing pieces that were showing up in the Berkeley variant, and BSD tapes contained AT&T code which meant users of BSD required a usage license from AT&T.

The BSD extensions were what we would eventually call “Open Source,” in a permissive sense. BSD was rewritten to remove the AT&T source code, and while it maintained many of the core concepts of and compatibility with the AT&T Unix, it was legally different.

Much like with Bill Gates and Micro-Soft’s (eventually Microsoft) Altair BASIC, we start to see the business side of software start to conflict with the academic side of software, or more it conflicting with the hacker idea of software.

We also see one of the first true Open Source licenses come from this, which distinctly grants the end user special rights on what they can and can’t do with the software. Unix had its own license which up until commercialization (and a growing market) had been fairly liberal, but BSD wanted to make sure that Unix would be available to whomever needed it.

“Whether gods exist or not, there is no way to get absolute certainty about ethics. Without absolute certainty, what do we do? We do the best we can.” — Richard Stallman

In 1980, copyright law was extended to include computer programs. Before that most software had freely been shared or sold on a good faith basis. You either released your software for everyone to use as public domain, or you sold it with the expectation that someone wouldn’t turn around and give it away for free.

Richard Stallman was, and probably is, one of the last true Hackers from the MIT era. In a sort of hipster-y kind of way he yearned for the time when software could be free, not shackled by laws or corporations. In a sense, software was meant to be shared and wanted to be shared. “All information should be free.”

Stallman announced the GNU project in 1983, which was an attempt to create a Unix-compatible operating system that was not proprietary. NDAs and restricted licenses were antithetical to the ideals of free software that he loved.

The Free Software Foundation was founded in 1985, and along with it came the idea of “copyleft.” Software was meant to be free, and GNU Manifesto shared his ideas on GNU project and software in general. Whether you agreed with it or not, the GNU Manifesto was a fundamental part of what we now consider Open Source.

Stallman then conglomerated his three licenses, the GNU Emacs, the GNU Debugger, and the GNU C Compiler, into a single licenses to better serve software distribution — the GPL v1, in 1989.

The release of the GPL, the release of a non-AT&T BSD Unix, and the flood of commerical software of the 80’s and 90’s, lead us to where we are today, and are the three major ideals that exist:

  • Software should always be free — Copyleft
  • Software should be easy to use and make the developers lives easier — Permissive
  • Software should be handled as the creator sees fit — Commercial

“younger devs today are about POSS — Post open source software. fuck the license and governance, just commit to github.” — James Govenor

Since 2000, a shift has been made toward permissive licensing. One would argue that the GPL is dying. One could argue that developers are more interested in helping themselves than the actual idea of free software.

There is no denying that there are two camps when it comes to Open Source software, with the crux of the problem being exactly what software is supposed to be, or do for us.

The GPL says it should be free. In a way, Software is a living, breathing thing that wants to have the freedom to become the best possible piece of Software. It cannot do that when it can be locked up, chained, and held back from the passions that developers have for making software better. You, the end user, are better because Software can be changed to make everyone’s lives better, and you are better because you can change the Software.

The other camp is more pragmatic in a way. Permissive licensing wants software to be free because that helps Developers. You, the Developer, release software to make people’s lives better. You, the Developer, are more interested in knowing that people can use your software or code in a way that they see fit. The end user is better because the Developer had the freedom to change the software to make everyone’s lives better.

Is one better than the other?

Or should we just throw it all to the wind and ignore sixty years of computer history and forget about licenses?

Recently, with the new Macbook refresh for 2016, many developers have taken a good hard look at whether or not they want to stick with macOS and the hardware. Traditionally Macbook Pros have been an excellent kit to use, and even I used one for travel up until earlier this year. They had powerful CPUs, could be loaded with a good amount of RAM, and had unparalleled battery life. The fact that macOS was built on a Unix subsystem also helped, making it easier for developer tools to be built and worked with thanks to the powerful command line interface.

The new hardware refresh was less than stellar. All jokes aside about the Touch Bar, it was not the hardware refresh many of us were looking for. While it does mean that 2015 models might be cheaper, if you are looking for a new laptop, is it time to possibly switch to another OS?

Linux would be the closest analogue in terms of how things work, but not all hardware works well with it. You will also lose a lot of day-to-day software, but the alternatives might work for you. If you are looking at a new OS, I'd heavily look at Linux on good portable hardware like a Thinkpad X or T series laptop. Even a used Thinkpad (except the 2014 models) will serve you well for a long time if you go the Linux route.

Up until about August, I ran Linux day-to-day. My job change meant that I had to run software that just did not work well under Linux, so I switched back to Windows. Back in 2015 I wrote about my Windows setup, and now I think it's time for an update now that I'm on Windows full time. A lot of things have changed in the past year and while working on Windows before was pretty good, its even better now.

Windows 10 Pro

Yes, it might be watching everything you do, but I've upgraded all of my computers to Windows 10 Pro. Part of this was necessity, as Docker only works on Windows 10 Pro or higher, but Windows 10 itself also opens up the ability to run bash. If you are coming from Windows 7, there isn't much difference. Everything is just about the same, with a little bit of the Windows 8.1 window dressing still coming through sometimes.

Windows 10 Pro also affords me the ability to remote desktop into my machine. Yes, yes, I know that I can do that for free with macOS and Linux, but that's not the only reason to use Pro. Remote Desktop allows me to access my full desktop from my laptop or my phone. There's been a bunch of times where I'm away, get an urgent e-mail, and need to check something on our corporate VPN. I just remote desktop into my machine at home and I'm all set. This is much easier than setting up OpenVPN on my iPhone.

The main reason I run Windows 10 is Docker, which I'll outline below. The short of it is that Docker for Windows requires Hyper-V, and Hyper-V is only available on Windows 10 Pro or higher.

If you are running a PC and Windows, you should have upgraded. Nearly all the software that I had problems with works fine with Windows 10 now. Any issues I have are purely just because of how Windows handles things after I've gotten used to Linux.

The Command Line - bash and Powershell wrapped in ConEmu

Part of this hasn't changed. I still use Powershell quite a bit. I even give my Docker workshop at conferences from a Powershell instance. With the Windows 10 Anniversary Update, Powershell now works more like a traditional terminal so you can resize it! That sounds like a little thing, but being stuck to a certain column width in older versions was a pain. Copy and paste has also been much improved.

I still install git and posh-git to give the terminal experience I had using zsh and oh-my-zsh on Linux. Since Powershell has most of the GNU aliases installed for common commands, moving around is pretty easy and the switch to using Powershell shouldn't take long. Now, some things like grep don't work, so you will have to find alternatives ... or you could just use real grep using bash.

I also do all of my Docker stuff from within Powershell. The reasons for this are twofold - one is that it works fine in Powershell out of the box, and the second is that setting up Docker to work in bash is a bit of a pain.

PHP and Composer, which are daily uses for me, are also installed with their Windows variants. I do also run specific versions under Docker, but having them natively inside Powershell just saves some time. PHP just gets extracted to a directory (C:\php for me), and you just point the Composer installer to that. After that, PHP is all set to go.

The Windows Subsystem for Linux (or bash) is a must for me. This provides an environment for running Ubuntu 14.04 in a CLI environment directly inside of Windows. This is a full version of Linux, with a few very minor limitations, for running command line tools and development tools. I'm pretty familiar with Ubuntu already, so I just install things as I would in Ubuntu. I have copies of PHP, git, etc, all installed.

What I don't do is set up an entire development environment inside Ubuntu/bash, I leave that for Docker. Getting services to run like Apache can be a bit of a pain because of the networking stuff that happens between bash and the host Windows system. You can do it, I just chose not to.

I'll switch back and forth between bash and Powershell as needed.

I've also switched to using ConEmu, which is a wrapper for various Windows-based terminals. It provides an extra layer that allows things like tabs, better configuration, etc. I have it defaulted to a bash shell, but have added a keyboard shortcut to launch Powershell terminals as well. This keeps desktop clutter down while giving me some of the power that Linux/macOS-based terminals had.

Editing files in bash

One thing I don't do in bash is store my files inside of the home directory. When you install it, it sets up a directory inside C:\Users\Username\AppData\Local\Lxss\rootfs that contains the installation, and C:\Users\Username\AppData\Local\Lxss\home\username that contains your home directory. I've had issues with files being edited directly through those paths not showing up in the bash instance. For example, I don't open bash, git clone a project into ~/Projects, and then open up PHPStorm and edit the files inside those paths. I'd perform the edits inside PHPStorm, save the file, and sometimes the edits showed up, sometimes they didn't.

Instead, I always move to /mnt/c/Users/Username/ and do everything in there. bash automatically mounts your drives under /mnt, so you can get to the "Windows" file system pretty easily. I haven't had any issues since doing that.

Docker for Windows

Microsoft has done a lot of work to help Docker run on Windows. While it is not as perfect as the native Linux version, the Hyper-V version is leaps and bounds better than the old Docker Toolbox version. Hyper-V's I/O and networking layer are much faster, and other than a few little quibbles with Powershell it is just as nice to work in as on Linux. In fact, I've been running my Docker workshop from Windows 10 for the last few times with as much success as in Linux.

It does require Hyper-V to be installed, so it's still got some of the same issues as running Docker Toolbox when it comes to things like port forwarding. You can also run Windows containers, though nothing I do day-to-day requires Windows containers, so my works is all inside Linux containers.

I would suggest altering the default settings for Docker though. You will need to enable "Shared Drives," as host mounting is disabled by default. I would suggest going under "Network" and setting a fixed DNS server. This helps resolve some issues when the Docker VM decides to just stop resolving internet traffic. If you can spare it, go under "Advanced" and bump up the RAM as well. I have 20 gigabytes of RAM on my desktop so I bump it up to 6 gigs, but my laptop works fine at the default 2 gigabytes.

All of my Docker work is done through Powershell, as the Docker client sets up Powershell by default. You could get this working under Bash as well by installing the Linux Docker Client (not the engine), and pointing it to the Hyper-V instance, but I find that's much more of a pain than just opening a Powershell window.

I run all of my services through Docker, so Apache, MySQL, etc, are all inside containers. I don't run any servers from the Windows Subsystem for Linux.

PhpStorm and Sublime Text

Nothing here has changed since 2015. PhpStorm and Sublime Text 3 are my go-to editors. PhpStorm is still the best IDE I think I've ever used, and Sublime Text is an awesome text editor with very good large file support.

What I'm Not Using Anymore

A few things have changed. I've switched to using IRCCloud instead of running my own IRC bouncer. It provides logging and excellent mobile apps for iOS and Android. It is browser-based and can eat memory if the tab is left open for days, but it saves me running a $5 server on Digital Ocean that I have to maintain.

puTTY, while awesome, is completely replaced for me with Powershell and Bash. Likewise, cygwin is dead to me now that I have proper Linux tools inside Bash.

I've also pretty much dropped Vagrant. At my day job we have to run software that isn't compatible with Virtualbox, and Docker on Windows works just fine now. I don't even have Vagrant installed on any of my machines anymore.

It's a Breeze

Developing PHP on Windows is nearly as nice as developing on Linux or macOS. I'd go so far as to say that I don't have a good use for my Macbook Pro anymore, other than some audio stuff I do where I need a portable machine. I'm as comfortable working in Windows as I was when I was running Ubuntu or ArchLinux, even though I'd much prefer running a free/libre operating system. I've got to make money though, so I'll stick with Windows for the while.

tl;dr

Here's what I use:

My Docker Setup

When it comes to Docker, I use Docker Compose to set up and link all of my containers together. It's rare that I have a single container, though many of my Sculpin-based sites live quite comfortably inside of an nginx container, but even those take advantage of volumes. For a basic three-tiered application, I start off with this basic docker-compose.yml file:

# docker-compose.dev.yml
version: '2'

volumes:
  mysqldata:
    driver: local

services:
  nginx:
    image: nginx
    volumes:
      - ./:/var/www:ro
      - ./app/nginx/default.conf:/etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
    links:
      - phpserver

  phpserver:
    build:
      context: ./
      dockerfile: ./phpserver.dockerfile
    working_dir: /var/www/public
    volumes:
      - ./:/var/www/
    links:
      - mysqlserver

  mysqlserver:
    image: mysql
    environment:
      MYSQL_DATABASE: my_db
      MYSQL_USER: my_db
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: password
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: rootpassword
    volumes:
      - mysqldata:/var/lib/mysql

  composer:
    entrypoint: /bin/true
    build:
      context: ./
      dockerfile: ./composer.dockerfile
    volumes:
      - ./:/app

I tend to use the stock nginx image supplied on the Docker Hub, as well as the official MySQL image. Both of these tend to work out of the box without much extra configuration other than mounting some config files, like I do above for nginx.

Most of my PHP projects tend to need extensions, so I use the following Dockerfile for PHP:

FROM php:fpm

RUN docker-php-ext-install pdo pdo_mysql

COPY ./ /var/www

It uses the stock FPM tag supplied by the PHP image, and I generally use the full-sized version of the images. They do make available images built off of Alpine Linux which are much smaller, but I've had issues with trying to build some extensions. I also have a COPY command here because this is the same Dockerfile I use for production, on development this is a wasted operation.

The other thing I do is define a service for Composer, the package manager for PHP. The Dockerfile for it mirrors the one for PHP, except it is built using the composer/composer image and it doesn't copy any files into itself as it never goes into production.

FROM composer/composer

RUN docker-php-ext-install pdo pdo_mysql

As is pretty standard, nginx links to PHP, and PHP links to MySQL.

With a docker-compose -f docker-compose.dev.yml up -d I can have my environment build itself and be all ready to go.

Why the Composer Service?

I'm a big fan of containerizing commands, as it reduces the amount of stuff I have installed on my host machine. As Composer is a part of my workflow, which I'll go over more in a minute, I build a custom image specific to this project with all the needed extensions. Without doing this, I will have to run composer either from my host machine directly, which can cause issues with missing extensions, PHP version mismatches, etc, or I have to run composer with the --ignore-platform-reqs flag, which can introduce dependency problems with extensions.

Building my own image makes it simple to script a custom, working Composer container per project.

The entrypoint: /bin/true line is there just to make the container that Docker Compose creates exit right away, as there is not currently a way to have Compose build an image but not attempt to run it.

The other thing you can do is download the PHAR package of composer, and run it using the PHP image generated by the project.

Custom Functions

I hate typing, so I have a few shell functions that make working with my toolchain a bit easier. I use both a Mac and ArchLinux, so I standardized on using the zsh shell. This makes it easier to move my shell scripts from one machine to another. Since I tend to run the PHP and Composer commands regularly, I have two functions I define in zsh that look to see if there is an image available for the project I'm in, otherwise they default to stock images:

# ~/.zshrc
function docker-php() {
    appname=$(basename `pwd -P`)
    appname="${appname/-/}"
    imagename='php:cli'
    output=$(docker images | grep "${appname}_phpserver")
    if [ "$?" = "0" ]; then
        imagename="${appname}_phpserver"
    fi
    docker run -ti --rm -v $(pwd):/app -w /app $imagename php $*
}

function docker-composer() {
    appname=$(basename `pwd -P`)
    appname="${appname/-/}"
    imagename='composer/composer'
    output=$(docker images | grep "${appname}_composer")
    if [ "$?" = "0" ]; then
        imagename="${appname}_composer"
    fi
    docker run --rm -v ~/.composer:/root/.composer -v $(pwd):/app -v ~/.ssh:/root/.ssh $imagename $*
}

I can now run docker-php to invoke a PHP CLI command that uses a projects phpserver image, and docker-composer to do the same with Composer. I could clean these up, and probably will in the future, but for now they get the job done.

A General Workflow

By using Docker Compose and the custom functions, I'm pretty well set. I copy all of these files into a new directory, run my docker-composer command to start requiring libraries, and I'm all set. If I need to use a skeleton project I will just create it in a sub-folder of my project and move everything up one level.

For applications that are being built against one specific version of PHP, I end here, and I run my unit tests using the docker-php function that I have defined. If I need to have multiple versions of PHP to test against, I'll make stub services like I did with the composer service.

Any custom commands above and beyond this get bash scripts in the project.

Deployment

Deployment is always done on a project-by-project basis. I tend to package up the application in one image for the most part, and then rebuild the application using the new images. How I do that depends on the actual build process being used, but it is a combination of using the above Dockerfiles for PHP and/or Docker Compose and stacking config files with -f.

I skirt the whole dependency issue with Composer by normally running it with --ignore-platform-reqs on the build server, mostly so I don't clog the build server with more images than I need, and so that I don't have to install any more extensions than needed on the build server.

Either way, the entire application is packaged in a single image for deployment.